Khulna was part of the ancient kingdoms of Vanga or Samatata. In the 12th century, it came under the Sena dynasty during the reign of Ballal Sena and formed part of the Bagri division of Bengal. The previous name of this region was Jalalabad.
During the 14th century, Shamsuddin Firoz Shah became the first Muslim ruler to arrive in the city. The Muslim settlements in the city increased during the time of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah. Subsequently, many mosques and shrines began to be established. In the 15th century, a Muslim saint named Khan Jahan Ali acquired a jagir (fiefdom) comprising a large part of the greater Khulna Division from the king of Gauḍa. Later he started to exercise full rights of sovereignty and continued to do so till his death in 1459.
After the death of Khan Jahan Ali, the city again became a part of theSultanate of Bengal. During the reign of Daud Khan Karrani in the 16th century, Vikramaditya, one of the chief ministers of the ruler, obtained a grant in the southern Bengal including Khulna when the ruler was busy fighting the Mughals. He then established a sovereign kingdom, having the capital at Iswaripur currently in Jessore District. Vikramaditya was succeeded by his son Pratapaditya who gained preeminence over the Baro-Bhuyans, holding strong possession of Southern Bengal. He was eventually defeated by Man Singh I, a Hindu general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, in 1611 AD.
Khulna remained under the rule of autonomous nawabs (rulers) of Bengal till 1793, when the British East India Companyabolished Nizamat (local rule) and took control of the city. In 1842, the city became a part of Khulna subdivision of Jessore District. In 1882, it became the headquarters of Khulna District, comprising the then Khulna and Bagerhat subdivisions of Jessore district, Satkhira subdivision of 24 Parganas district and the Sundarbans.
Khulna was declared as a Pouroshava / Municipal council in 1884 and promoted to a Municipal corporation in 1984 on the platinum jubilee of Khulna Pouroshava.
In 1990 Khulna has been declared as a City Corporation.
Khulna is the 3rd largest city after Dhaka and Chittagong. Khulna is located in south-western Bangladesh at 22°49′0″N 89°33′0″E, on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab river. It covers a total area of 59.57 km2, while the district itself is about 4394.46 km2. It lies south ofJessore and Narail, East ofSatkhira, West of Bagerhat and North of the Bay of Bengal. It is part of the largest delta in the world. In the southern part of the delta lies theSundarban, the world's largest mangrove forest. The city of Khulna is in the northern part of the district, and is mainly an expansion of trade centres close to the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers. The Mayur River forms the western boundary of the metropolitan area.
As of the 2011 census, the population of the city is at 1.4 million. The city, in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to an estimated 1.44 million as of 2007. Density of population is about 19,000 per km2. The literacy rate among the urban people of Khulna is 59.1%, which is higher than the national average of 56.5%.
Most of the people in Khulna are the Bengali people, as is the case in most of Bangladesh. The long-standing inhabitants of the city are known as Khulnaia and they have a distinctive dialect. Apart from them, the city population is composed of people from the neighbouring districts and from the greater Barisal &Faridpur regions of Bangladesh. Many people from greater Noakhali region also resides in the city. Khulna also have a significant number of Bihari population.
Most residents of Khulna speak Bengali, the national language. Many distinctive Bengali dialects and regional languages are also spoken. English is understood by a large segment of the population, especially for business purposes. There is a minority Urdu-speaking population, who are descendants of displaced Muslims from eastern India during 1947 and sought refuge in East Pakistan.
Islam is the major religion in Khulna, approximately 73.49% people are Muslim, and the proportion of other religions are: Hindu 25.74%, Christian 0.67%, Buddhist 0.04%, and Others 0.06%.
Khulna has many prestigious educational institutions. Govt. Brajalal College is the oldest institution of higher education in the city, founded in 1902. Khulna University is the only public University in Bangladesh where student politics is strictly prohibited. Also, there is an engineering University Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET) and a medical college Khulna Medical College (KMC). There are also some famous educational institutions like Azam Khan Govt. Commerce College, Khulna Govt. Women's College, Govt.M.M City College, Govt. Laboratory High School, Khulna Zila School, Govt. Coronation Girls School etc.
Beside these there is 01 teachers' training college, 01 regional public administration training institute, 01 polytechnic institute, 01 vocational institute, 01 homoeopathic college and 01 social welfare training centre. Khulna is under the Jessore Education Board. This board varies the SSC and HSC standard.
Khulna Municipal Council was founded on 12 December 1884, and promoted to a "municipal corporation" in 1984. It has declared a "city corporation" in 1990. Khulna City Corporation is a self-governing corporation run by an elected Mayor, which runs the affairs of the city. There are 31 wards in the City Corporation area.
Khulna Metropolitan Police (KMP) controls law and order as well as traffic movements within the metropolitan area. The area has been divided by eight police stations: Khulna Kotwali Thana, Sonadanga Thana, Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana, Khan Jahan Ali Thana, Aarongghata Thana, Horintana Thana and Labonchora Thana.
The Metropolitan Magistrate Court (CMM) looks after the legal issues around the city. A governing body called Khulna Development Authority (KDA) plans the infrastructure development of the city and coordinates development-related work. There are two parliamentary constituencies within the city: Khulna-02 (Khulna Sadar Thana and Sonadanga Thana) and Khulna-03 (Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana and Khan Jahan Ali Thana). Khulna District and Khulna Division also have their administrative headquarters in the city.Collected From Wikipedia